Models of Addiction

With this PPT we will take a look at some of the major models used when studying addiction Please know this audio PPT is only meant to be a supplement to your reading in the text

When discussing any of the models it is important to first look at some of the underlying reasons for these models Often, in a search to better understand the issues underlying addiction, many have tried to create and use models to identify causes and give an explanation of the development of addiction Many of the models have often then become tied to a matching treatment philosophy which, together, become a working template for clinicians to use in the treatment and recovery field Often a model has been embraced and presented in such a way that it creates a standardized perspective on addiction; meaning it is meant to be used across the board with any type of client for any substance When looking at the models of addiction, there are some pros and cons

While models have been useful in the field, it is also important to note that historically, the models can often oversimplify issues of addiction in an effort to find �a magic cure� to a complex issue It is vital to know that models have often been more about someone�s personal beliefs and own experiences with addiction In addition, many models have often been very limited or rigid in their perspective and application and have excluded vital cultural and societal factors That being said, models can be very useful in providing a framework to understanding addiction and offering techniques that help one to develop a recovery lifestyle Knowing this, it is important to note that selecting a model as a frame of reference for addiction can have an enormous influence on a provider�s work; it can influence how one views clients related to their substance use, influence their view on the underlying causes as well as treatment for addiction and even their collaboration efforts with other staff

This is why it is crucial for all providers not to take this selection process lightly Due to these factors, many providers approach the models in an inclusive manner Meaning, they learn the underlying principles, concepts and techniques of all the models and use them based on client preference and need So, instead of choosing just one model to use as a foundation in treatment services, having familiarity with many of them allows a provider to be flexible and adaptable based on client need With this approach, models are used as one type of tool or guide and individualized to meet each person�s recovery needs

Taking a closer look at some of the more widely known models, the text presents information on the models listed on this slide Please make sure you have a working understanding of the main ideas and concepts for each of these models When reviewing the information on the multi-systemic framework, please note that this framework has evolved into what we now call a biopsychosocial approach One additional model I am mentioning is called the temperance model I am including information on this model because it is often mistakenly included within the moral model when, in actuality, there are major distinctions between the two

A major difference is that instead of a person lacking willpower or addiction being a person�s fault (as viewed in the moral model) the temperance model saw the substance itself as the problem or threat to society The sheer nature of a substance being available was seen as the major issue and �people� were viewed as being vulnerable to its influence if made available for public consumption Within this model, there was an initial focus on moderation and reducing widespread availability; however there was an eventual shift to wanting to completely eliminate access to one or more substances as well as embracing abstinence as the only option The temperance movement has had a strong influence on political issues; most notably with prohibition and the war on drugs Some of its keys assumptions continue today with the ongoing debate over legal -vs- illegal substances

So, this completes our summary of some of the major models that have surfaced in the field of addiction Use them to take some time to think about what might influence your past or present view on substance use and addiction

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